Silex Unwired

Ron Tozaki

Recent Posts

Code RED - Radio Equipment Directive, that is!

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2017-01-31 01:44:35

ALERT… Come June 13, 2017 the current directive regulating radio equipment will be repealed and new requirements will come into law and all new products will need to comply with the updated directive. We are now less than 6 months away and have to make sure that all products being sold or placed into service in Europe MUST comply to RED (Radio Equipment Directive).


Summary of Changes?

Please note that to sell Wi-Fi products into the EU you must be compliant to RED and not R&TTE. One must understand what is being changed so necessary steps can be taken to get Wi-Fi products in compliance. The four basic standards for WIFI are changing.  They will be officially harmonized and listed in the Official Journal as follows:


Version today


Final Draft

Standard Issued

Official Journal *



RF2.4 GHz






RF 5 GHz
















                        *per Sulis Consultants of Dec 20, 2016 but subject to change


As shown above, the 5 GHz standard will not be official until after the mandatory June 13, 2017 transition date so you must obtain an EU-type examination certificate from a Notified Body (NB) which will be an added expense to you.


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Tags: Radio Equipment Directive

Are you prepared for EN 300 328 v1.9.1?

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2015-11-17 19:35:13

EN 300 328 covers wideband data systems operating in the 2.4GHz ISM band, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee. This is the harmonized standard against which manufacturers must issue their Declaration of Conformity for the Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment (R&TTE) Directive.

Since there were significant changes between ETSI’s V1.7.1 and V1.8.1, it’s natural that electronics manufacturers are wondering what changes are in store for V1.9.1. The latest update, EN 300 328 V1.9.1, is now published and available to download free of charge from the ETSI website.

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Tags: Embedded Wireless

Does your product need to be tested for SAR?

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2015-10-28 00:54:55

What is SAR?

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) refers to the amount of radio frequency electromagnetic field absorbed by the body while using a wireless device. SAR is defined as the power absorbed per mass of tissue and is expressed in units of watts per kilogram (W/Kg). SAR is typically measured over a small sample volume (1 gram or 10 grams). The SAR limit is a measure of the electric and magnetic field strength and power density for a given transmitter over its operating frequency range. In the US, SAR limit for FCC/IC is 1.6 W/Kg over a 1g sample and in Europe, the SAR limit for CE is 2.0 W/Kg for a 10g sample. Any portable products require SAR testing and reports.

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Tags: Wireless Infrastructure

Are you prepared for the Level VI Energy-Efficiency Regulation?

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2015-09-17 15:00:05

The U.S. Level VI energy-efficiency regulation, aimed at energy savings in external power supplies, goes into force on February 10, 2016, and will impact all OEM's selling into the U.S. market. The European Union (EU) also is expected to harmonize with the new efficiency standard.

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Tags: Embedded Wireless

Radio Equipment Directive (RED) 2014/53/EU

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2015-08-27 15:00:19

What is Radio Equipment Directive (RED) 2014/53/EU? 

The Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive (R&TTE) 1999/5/EC has been in place for over 15 years now and has served the radio and telecoms world well. Over the last 15 years technology has made many advances in the wireless domain and new ways to ensure compliance was needed.

After review the new European Radio Equipment Directive (RED), 2014/53/EU was published in the Official Journal of the European Commission on May 22nd 2014 which will repeal the R&TTE Directive by June 12th 2016. After this date there is a one year period when either the R&TTE or RED Directive can be applied.

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Tags: Embedded Wireless

FCC Update for 802.11d - “World Wide Roaming”

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2014-12-17 09:47:13

FCC plans to prohibit the use of “World Wide Roaming”. What this means is that wireless clients will not be allowed to use the 802.11d specification to automatically configure themselves to their local regulatory domain in the US. This update will require the manufacturer to set the country domain code for their products to US. This new FCC rule will also prevent any end-user from making changes to transmitter RF parameters if it is not authorized to do so in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands.

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Tags: Uncategorized

FCC Announces New Rules for U-NII in 5 GHz Band

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2014-08-26 16:00:25

In the Federal Register Vol 79, No.84 of May 01, 2014, FCC has announced that Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) for the 5 GHz band would undergo some changes starting June 2nd, 2014. This change eliminates a loophole where a device could be certified under 15.247 but then illegally modified to operate in the U-NII DFS bands which interfered with Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR).

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Tags: Uncategorized

Wireless Modular Certifications in China

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2014-06-03 19:15:20

On January 02, 2014, the China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (CMIIT) announced support for modular certification of low-power radio transmitters used with Wifi & Bluetooth applications in Internet Technology equipment and Household appliances. This includes use in PCs, laptops, printers, etc, for IT and TV’s, refrigerators, etc, for the household.

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Tags: Uncategorized

802.11d to be banned as of Jan 1st, 2015

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2014-02-13 17:00:35

What is 802.11d?

IEEE 802.11d is an amendment approved in 2001 to the 802.11 Wireless LAN specifications, which allows clients to automatically configure themselves to their local regulatory domain.  The AP beacon includes the country code for the region it is operating in.

This was done to make it easier for smaller countries that are not part of a larger domain like North America or Europe to configure its clients to the correct operating bands/channels for that country.  This is known as world or world-wide mode.

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Tags: Uncategorized

Understanding Wireless Regulations in China

Posted by Ron Tozaki on 2014-02-04 16:00:54

Prior to 2013, the Wi-Fi airwaves were getting clogged in China as the 5GHz band was confined to 5725-5850 MHz. To solve this issue, China opened up the 5GHz band to add the 5150-5350 MHz frequencies to create more breathing space and a less congested Wi-Fi environment. Some of the changes are as follows:

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Tags: Uncategorized